Minority Mental Health Awareness Month

“Racial and ethnic minority groups in the U.S. are less likely to have access to mental health services, less likely to use community mental health services, more likely to use the emergency room department, and more likely to receive lower quality of care.” – U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, 2019

Note: Resources are listed at the bottom of this post.

In honor of Bebe Moore Campbell, a writer and mental health advocate, National Minority Mental Health Awareness Month was established in 2008 to bring awareness to the mental health barriers that minorities face in America.

What are the barriers?

  • Lack of insurance or being underinsured
  • Mental health stigma
  • Lack of adversity among providers
  • Language barriers
  • Distrust in the healthcare system
  • Inadequate support for mental health services
  • Misdiagnosis

Lack of insurance or being underinsured

African Americans and people of Hispanic origin are less likely to have insurance coverage compared to Whites; and a disruption in insurance, and a change in doctors, makes it less likely to develop a relationship with their doctor.2 This can make them less likely to seek mental health care.

Mental health stigma

There’s stigma in seeking mental health care because of race, culture, masculinity, religious beliefs, discrimination, and other factors. Many of these factors are ingrained in our society and who we are as a people.

Lack of adversity among providers

A lack of adversity is probably something that people don’t think about. However, it has been shown that if a doctor is of the same race as a patient, the patient is more likely to report higher levels of trust and satisfaction.3

Source: Association of American Medical Colleges, 2018

Language barriers

Language barriers also pose a significant issue. Being unable to communicate effectively because of language and/or culture, or being unable to comprehend health information due to medical terms, is also another factor that can put a person’s mental health at risk.4

Distrust in the healthcare system

The history of the American healthcare system is steeped in racism, sexism, and classism; and because of that history, some minorities may feel uneasy from seeking mental services.

Inadequate support for mental health services

Access to healthcare is one of the biggest issues some Americans are faced with. Inadequate access to mental health services make it harder for people to receive the mental health care that they need.

Source: Mental Health America, 2018  


Minorities are more likely to be undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, or under-diagnosed because of cultural, linguistic, or even historical reasons.5 A Rutgers University study found that African Americans were more likely to be misdiagnosed with schizophrenia than their White counterparts.6         

This post by no means discredits what White Americans may experience regarding mental health. However, it was written to address the barriers and issues that minorities are faced with. For example, White Americans have higher rates of depression, and are more likely to die from suicide, than Black and Hispanics. However, depression in Black and Hispanic Americans are more likely to be persistent.6

Source: American Psychiatry Association, 2017

Visit the National Alliance on Mental Health for more information.

What is being done, and what can be done?

  • Training for healthcare professionals on cultural competency and the barriers that minorities are faced with
  • Providing resources specifically designed to address the needs of specific populations/cultures/races
  • Advocating to address the needs, concerns, and inequalities of various populations
  • Providing mental health resources in religious settings and common gathering places
  • Providing access to healthcare in rural communities
  • Educating individuals and families on the importance of seeking mental healthcare, and providing education to break stigma
  • Connecting individuals and families with healthcare professionals they can relate to
  • Connecting individuals and families with resources that are appropriate for them
  • Providing access to tools and resources to healthcare professionals, individuals, and families
  • Developing relationships between healthcare professionals and patients

Right now, we don’t have a perfect solution on how to combat the issue of inequalities in the healthcare system and the disparities that minorities face regarding mental health. There are systemic issues that we will have to continue to uncover and address for us to make progress in providing adequate mental healthcare for all.

Bebe Moore Campbell

A big thank you to Bebe Moore Campbell and all the mental health professionals and advocates who have and are shedding light on minority mental health issues.

Books on culture & race in the healthcare system:

Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to Present by Harriet A. Washington

The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures by Anne Fadiman

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot

Mental Health Resources:

 Mental Health America https://www.mhanational.org/bipoc-mental-health

Resources for Black and African American Communities https://mhanational.org/issues/black-and-african-american-communities-and-mental-health

Resources for Latinx/Hispanic Communities https://mhanational.org/issues/latinxhispanic-communities-and-mental-health

Resources for Asian American/Pacific Islander Communities https://mhanational.org/issues/asian-americanpacific-islander-communities-and-mental-health

Resources for Native and Indigenous Communities https://mhanational.org/issues/native-and-indigenous-communities-and-mental-health


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health. (2020). Minority Mental Health Awareness Month. Retrieved from https://www.minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/content.aspx?ID=9447

Sohn, H. (2017). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage: Dynamics of Gaining and Losing Coverage over the Life-Course. Popul Res Policy Rev. 2017 Apr; 36(2): 181–201.

Rothman, P. (2016). Diversity in Medicine has Measurable Benefits. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/articles/diversity-in-medicine-has-measurable-benefits#:~:text=Studies%20show%20that%20students%20trained,by%202.2%20minutes%2C%20on%20average.

Partida, Y. (2007). Language Barriers and the Patient Encounter. American Medical Association. Retrieved from https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/language-barriers-and-patient-encounter/2007-08

American Psychological Association. (2017). Disparities in Mental Health Status and Mental Health Care. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/advocacy/health-disparities/health-care-reform

Mental Health Today. (2019). Depression or schizophrenia? Black patients are more likely to be misdiagnosed. Retrieved from  https://www.mentalhealthtoday.co.uk/news/awareness/depression-or-schizophrenia-black-patients-more-likely-to-be-misdiagnosed#:~:text=Black%20patients%20more%20likely%20to%20be%20misdiagnosed&text=Researchers%20examined%20the%20medical%20records,with%20schizophrenia%20than%20white%20patients.

Men, Your Mental Health Matters

Life is hard and we often get consumed by everything that’s going on. Physically, we may look okay. We may walk around smiling pretending as if we are perfectly okay when we are not. When asked how we are doing, we may respond by simply saying, “fine,” when we are actually on the verge of mentally breaking into a million pieces.

There’s stigma connected to speaking about mental health issues as if they are separate from our physical health and wellbeing. There’s especially stigma when it comes to men’s mental health.

While mental health affects men and women, men are less likely to seek and receive mental health treatment. Depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and even eating disorders impact men’s health.

Signs and Symptoms of Depression

Image by Pixabay from Pexels

Common symptoms of depression include:1

  • Anger, irritability, or aggressiveness
  • Feeling anxious or “on the edge”
  • Feeling sad or hopeless
  • Loss of interest in work, family, or once-pleasurable activities
  • Not being able to concentrate or remember details
  • Overeating or not eating enough
  • Physical pain, aches, headaches, digestive problems
  • Engaging in risky activities
  • Withdrawing from family and friends
  • Turning to alcohol or drugs
  • Thoughts of suicide or suicide attempts

Mental Health America has an online mental health screening tool and a list of resources based on your zip code. Remember that this is a tool and does not formally diagnose you. You must speak with a specialist for a diagnosis.

What should I do?

Image by Jopwell from Pexels

Seek Treatment

The first thing that you should do if you believe that you are experiencing depression, anxiety, or another mental health condition, is seek help. Speak with your doctor and/or a mental health professional (counselor, psychologist, and/or psychiatrist).

Be open to treatment

There are several treatment options from therapy to medications. No matter what option(s) you choose, know that it may take time for you to adjust and/or feel like yourself again.

Speak with someone you trust

You should not have to suffer in silence. Speak with someone you trust about how you’re feeling and what you’re thinking. If you don’t have anyone in you’re life that you can speak with, there are options. The Suicide Prevention Lifeline is a readily available resource for you to turn to.

Find a healthy outlet

Alcohol, smoking, drugs, food…mental health conditions often trigger the need for us to numb our feelings. Instead of turning to substances that numb our feelings, it’s important that we not only get to the root of the issue, but also find a healthy outlet. Exercise, practice deep breathing, try to engage in activities that you enjoy, or try something new.

Image by Krisztina Papp from Pexels

Eat a healthy diet

Greasy and fatty food may temporarily fill that void and numb the pain, but they can also make you feel sluggish. Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of vegetables and fruits, lean meat and fatty fish like salmon, will provide your body with nutrients that it needs as you try to fight through what you’re experiencing.

Set Goals

Start your day by setting some goals. Your goals can be as small as making your bed or taking a shower, or even going for a walk. Set goals to keep yourself busy and your mind occupied.2

No matter what issues you are facing, know that you can make it through. There is help for you and resources to meet you where you are. You are not alone.


National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

Call 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) TTY: 1-800-799-4TTY (1-800-799-4889)

Veterans Crisis Line                                                                                                                       

Call 1-800-273-8255/Text 838255

Crisis Text Line                                                                                                                                 

Text “Hello” to 741741


National Institute of Mental Health. (2019). Men and Mental Health. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/men-and-mental-health/index.shtml

Mayo Clinic. (2019). Male depression: Understanding the issues. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/in-depth/male-depression/art-20046216

Mental Health America. (2020). Infographic: Mental Health for Men. Retrieved from https://www.mhanational.org/infographic-mental-health-men

Men’s Health Exams: What’s Right for You?

It’s important to schedule a yearly physical, but do you know what health exams are right for you? Your healthcare needs are based on factors including your family history, your current health, and your age. Below is a list of, and information on, common health screenings.

Source: Medline Plus, 2020

STD Screening

Being responsible for your health means knowing your status, regardless of your age. Get tested if you are sexually active. Check with your doctor, your local health department, or organizations like AIDS Healthcare Foundation for free or low-cost testing. Your insurance may cover HIV testing during your annual physical.

Colorectal Screening

A colorectal screening is preformed to detect colon cancer. Early detection can lead to early treatment if cancer is found.

Osteoporosis Screening

A bone density exam detects osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and brittle. While many women get osteoporosis because of hormonal changes, men are also susceptible to the disease as they get older.

Image by Carolina Grabowska from Pexels

Prostate Cancer Screening

A prostate specific antigen (PSA) test measures the level of PSA in your blood. What is PSA? PSA is a substance made by the prostate, and having a high level of it in your system may indicate cancer or another issue with your prostate.

Testicular Screening

A lump on, or swelling of, the testicle is often the first sign of testicular cancer. Some doctors recommend self-screening where you look for any abnormalities (lump, swelling, or change in shape). Your doctor can screen you for this.

Lung Cancer Screening

If you have a history of heavy smoking, have quit within the past 15 years, and are 55 – 80 years old, you should be screened for lung cancer. Screening involves X-ray imaging.

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening

An abdominal aortic aneurysm screening detects if there is an enlargement in the lower part of your aorta. The aorta isn’t just a blood vessel in your heart. It runs down to your abdomen supplying your body with blood. Men ages 65 – 75 who are or were smokers should be examined once.

Speak with your doctor about your healthcare needs.


Medline Plus. (2020). Health screenings for men ages 18 to 39. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007464.htm

Medline Plus. (2020). Health screenings for men ages 40 to 64. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007465.htm

Medline Plus. (2020). Health screenings for men over age 65. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007466.htm

Men’s Health Month

Image by August de Richelieu from Pexels

I am writing this post from a personal perspective. Yesterday was Father’s Day, and this month is Men’s Health Month. Yes men, there’s a month for you too.

My father embodies what it means to be a man of strength. Many consider him to be a “man’s, man.” He loves proving that he’s physically strong and always tries to find ways to show it. However, a few years ago, he kept quiet about what was going on with his very own health and his physical strength was on the decline. Knowing my father, it was because he didn’t want anyone, not even his wife and children, to view him as weak; although, we would never consider him so. On the outside he looked strong, but on the inside, his very heart was trying to kill him.

My father doing what he loves…spending time with nature

Though my father waited before visiting his doctor, he found the courage to speak up about how he was feeling, and even told my mother that he felt like something was “off” with his body. Since then, my father has recovered and has made his health, and speaking with his healthcare team, a priority. He gets routine exams, practices medication adherence, and finds ways to be physically active. He boasts whenever he gets a good report from the doctor and is now open to letting us know if he needs to rest.

Many of the health conditions that men are faced with are preventable. Even if you are reading this and you do have a health condition, there are ways for you to manage it. How?

Get Routine Health Exams

  • No matter your age, you should have a yearly physical exam. The physical exam is a chance for your doctor to check, and you to know, your blood pressure, A1C, cholesterol, and other health numbers. If you have a chronic health condition, like diabetes for example, make sure that you schedule regular appointments with your healthcare team. Scheduling your physical at the beginning of the year or near your birthday may help you remember to go.
  • Get a dental exam every six months. Your oral health is connected to your overall health.
  • See an eye doctor. It’s also important to make sure your eyes are healthy. If you are diabetic, you should have a dilated eye exam.
Image by Negative Space from Pexels

Speak with Your Doctor about Your Concerns

Your doctor is there to help you. Have a list of questions and concerns (medication side effects, issues sleeping, and even stress and anxiety) ready for your doctor. Get a second opinion if needed and look for another doctor if the one you have isn’t right for you.

Make Healthy Lifestyle Changes

You really do have the power to make healthier choices. You can do this by:

  • Eating a healthier diet; moderately eating your favorite foods
  • Creating an exercise plan and/or increasing your level of physical activity
  • Limiting your alcohol consumption
  • Quitting smoking
  • Practicing stress management
Image by Vlad Chetan from Pexels

Make Yourself a Priority

Like my father, you may put yourself on the back burner at times. It’s important that you begin to make yourself a priority.

  • Schedule time to do something you enjoy
  • Set aside a few minutes a day to breathe and gather your thoughts
  • Speak to someone you trust

Your physical strength shouldn’t define who you are as a man and being strong doesn’t mean being silent about what’s going on with your health. Make sure you regularly visit your doctor and also speak with them about ANY heath concerns you may have.

Tips and Tricks to Get More Sleep: Practicing Relaxation Techniques

Photograph by Andrea Piacquadio from Pexels

Deep breathing and other relaxation techniques have numerous benefits, such as:

  • Lowering stress
  • Lowering blood pressure and heart rate
  • Serving as a temporary distraction
  • Helping relieve tension
  • Improving sleep
  • Allowing oxygen to flow throughout the body

My personal favorites include: 4-7-8, the body scan, guided meditation, and listening to nature sounds. Practicing relaxation techniques helped me manage major depression, anxiety, and even insomnia.

You can record yourself repeating the steps to the following exercises or find the audio versions online or on YouTube.

Deep Breathing Exercises

Photograph by Dids from Pexels

Belly Breathing

  1. Sit or lie flat in a comfortable position.
  2. Put one hand on your belly just below your ribs and the other hand on your chest.
  3. Take a deep breath in through your nose, and let your belly push your hand out. Your chest should not move.
  4. Breathe out through pursed lips as if you were whistling. Feel the hand on your belly go in, and use it to push all the air out.
  5. Do this breathing 3 to 10 times. Take your time with each breath.
  6. Notice how you feel at the end of the exercise.


  1. Place the tip of your tongue against the ridge of tissue just behind your upper front teeth, and keep it there through the entire exercise. You will be exhaling through your mouth around your tongue; try pursing your lips slightly if this seems awkward.
  2. Exhale completely through your mouth, making a whoosh sound.
  3. Close your mouth and inhale quietly through your nose to a mental count of four.
  4. Hold your breath for a count of seven.
  5. Exhale completely through your mouth, making a whoosh sound to a count of eight.
  6. This is one breath. Now inhale again and repeat the cycle three more times for a total of four breaths.

Progressive Muscle Relaxation

  1. Breathe in, and tense the first muscle group (i.e., hands) for 4 to 10 seconds (hard but not to the point of pain or cramping).
  2. Breathe out, and suddenly and completely relax the muscle group (do not relax it gradually).
  3. Relax for 10 to 20 seconds before you work on the next muscle group. Notice the difference between how the muscles feel when they are tense and how they feel when they are relaxed.
  4. When you are finished with all of the muscle groups, count backward from 5 to 1 to bring your focus back to the present.
Photograph by Kelvin Valerio from Pexels

Guided Imagery

  1. Get into a comfortable position.
  2. Close your eyes and relax.
  3. Begin to visualize a scene, memory, or story that you find calming. This is highly individual—find what works best for you by trying a few choices — a favorite vacation or calming outdoor spot, a relaxing activity or something repetitive like remembering the steps of an exercise or dance routine. The key is to find something that allows you to focus your attention and let go of other thoughts.
  4. Begin to create this scenario in your mind.
  5. Visualize all the details of the image or story, as slowly and carefully as you can.
  6. Any time you find your mind drifting to an unrelated thought (a worry about the day or a “must do” for tomorrow), acknowledge it and let it go.

The Body Scan is another relaxation exercise you can try.

As always, it is best to speak with a healthcare provider about your sleep habits or if you are experiencing any pain, trauma, or mental health condition. Also, you should practice relaxation techniques a few times to determine what works best for you.


University of Michigan. (2019). Stress Management: Breathing Exercises for Relaxation. Retrieved from https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/uz2255

Dr. Andrew Weil. (2016). Three Breathing Exercises and Techniques. Retrieved from https://www.drweil.com/health-wellness/body-mind-spirit/stress-anxiety/breathing-three-exercises/

Dartmouth University Wellness Center. (n.d.). Guided Audio Recordings. Retrieved from https://students.dartmouth.edu/wellness-center/wellness-mindfulness/mindfulness-meditation/guided-audio-recordings

Tips and Tricks to Get More Sleep: Practicing Sleep Hygiene

Photograph by Jcomp from Freepik

Do you have trouble sleeping? Do you wake up feeling exhausted? There are several reasons why 1 in 3 adults living in America are not getting the recommended 7-9 hours of sleep. 1,2 I, myself, have dealt with sleep issues on and off over the past few years. However, after dealing with chronic insomnia that lasted several months, I decided to speak with a counselor who taught me the benefits of practicing sleep hygiene and relaxation techniques.

Photograph by Drobotdean from Freepik

What is sleep hygiene?

Sleep hygiene involves putting habits and practices in place to help you sleep; from having a consistent bedtime to even getting enough exercise. It involves breaking old habits and creating new habits that will benefit your quality of sleep.

Why practice sleep hygiene?

Consistently put into practice, sleep hygiene can act as a signal to let your brain and body know that it is time for bed. It also involves practicing healthy habits during the day that will make it easier for you to fall asleep and even possibly stay asleep. Waking up feeling restored and refreshed is a goal that many want to achieve.

Here are a few tips and tricks to practice sleep hygiene:

  • Go to sleep and wake up around the same time each day
  • Develop a nighttime routine (i.e., take a warm bath, read a book, brush your teeth, etc.)
  • Avoid technology before bed (light from electronics can delay the release of melatonin)
  • Limit alcohol (alcohol may prevent you from getting restorative sleep)
  • Avoid eating a heavy meal (eating a heavy meal before bed can lead to indigestion)
  • Avoid drinking large amounts of liquid before bed
  • Avoid consuming caffeine in the afternoon (caffeine can stay in your system for up to 8 hours)
  • Create an exercise plan (avoid exercising less than 2 hours before bed)
  • Don’t stay awake in bed for more than 20 minutes
  • Use a sleep journal or App to track sleep
  • Keep a journal near your bed to write down thoughts
  • Create a comfortable sleeping environment (i.e., neat bedroom, soothing scents, warm lighting, blackout blinds, weighted blanket, white noise machine, etc.)
  • Turn the clock away from you
  • Practice deep breathing and relaxation techniques
  • Use guided imagery
  • Listen to relaxing music or nature sounds
  • Speak with a counselor (sleep deprivation may be due to an underlying mental health condition [i.e., depression or anxiety] or traumatic incident)
  • Speak with a doctor about medications (changing medications or reducing dosage may help)
Photography by Rawpixel from Freepik

Everyone is different and some routines work best for some people more than others, but it is up to you to learn ways that will help you get a better night’s rest. It also takes patience and practice as you are retraining the brain and creating new habits.

Although practicing sleep hygiene may help you sleep, please speak with a healthcare professional if you have trouble sleeping or think that you may have a sleep disorder.


National Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). Sleep Diary. https://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/SleepDiaryv6.pdf

National Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). Sleep Hygiene.  https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/sleep-hygiene


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/sleep/index.html

Hirshkowitz, M. & The National Sleep Foundation. (2015). Sleep Health. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-much-sleep-do-we-really-need

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Health

Sleep is just as important as diet and exercise; and a lack of it can lead to accidents, unintentional injuries, and errors. Sleep impacts our health and well-being.  Acquiring the recommended amount of sleep can help one prevent the development of chronic conditions, and those with a chronic condition may be able to better manage it with enough sleep. 1

The Sleep Cycle

The sleep cycle plays a specific role in disease prevention and management.  During stages 3 & 4 the body begins to heal and repair itself.  Blood pressure decreases, blood sugar becomes regulated, tissue is repaired, muscles are built, and the immune system is strengthened. Getting enough of stages 3 & 4 helps to restore your body making you wake up feeling well rested.

The Domino Effect

Sleep deprivation influences our weight, heart health, blood sugar, and mental health. Being sleep deprived can make it hard to manage chronic conditions and causes a domino effect that can lead to chronic conditions.


A lack of sleep affects the hypothalamus which regulates appetite.  When sleep deprived, ghrelin (a hormone that induces hunger) is released in the body and leptin (a hormone that causes feelings of fullness) decreases. Sleep deprivation can also lead to an increase in endocannabinoids, which are substances produced by the body that make food pleasurable.

People who are sleep deprived eat twice as much fat and more than 300 additional calories compared to those who are not.2

Photograph by Steve Buisssinne from Pexels

Heart Health

As previously mentioned, during restorative sleep, your blood pressure decreases. A decrease in blood pressure puts less pressure on blood vessels. However, sleep deprivation causes blood pressure to remain high during long periods of time and can lead to coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke.3,4


Since blood sugar is regulated during stages 3 & 4 of sleep, a lack of sleep may lead to a decrease in the amount of insulin (the hormone that removes glucose out of the blood) in the blood stream and increases the amount of cortisol in the body.  The chances of developing type 2 diabetes become greater with sleep deprivation.5

Photograph by Gern Altmann from Pixabay

Depression and Anxiety

Depression and anxiety can lead to sleep deprivation and sleep deprivation can lead to depression and anxiety.  Those who wake frequently during the night are more likely to have clinical depression.  Having a sleep disorder like insomnia and sleep apnea can also impact mental health. Those with insomnia are:

-10 times more likely to have clinical depression

-17 times more likely to have clinical anxiety

While those with sleep apnea are 5 times more likely to suffer from clinical depression.6

Practicing sleep hygiene and relaxation techniques may help you get some much-needed rest. Below is a list of resources that include information on sleep hygiene and relaxation techniques.

Make sure to speak with your healthcare provider if you have trouble sleeping.


National Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). Sleep Hygiene. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/sleep-hygiene

University of Michigan. (2019). Stress Management: Breathing Exercises for Relaxation. Retrieved from https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/uz2255

Dr. Andrew Weil. (2016). Three Breathing Exercises and Techniques. Retrieved from https://www.drweil.com/health-wellness/body-mind-spirit/stress-anxiety/breathing-three-exercises/

Dartmouth University Wellness Center. (n.d.). Guided Audio Recordings. Retrieved from https://students.dartmouth.edu/wellness-center/wellness-mindfulness/mindfulness-meditation/guided-audio-recordings


Hirshkowitz, M. & The National Sleep Foundation. (2015). Sleep Health. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-much-sleep-do-we-really-need

National Sleep Foundation. (2019). Obesity and Sleep. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/obesity-and-sleep-0

American Heart Association. (2017). What is Cardiovascular Disease? Retrieved from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/consumer-healthcare/what-is-cardiovascular-disease

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Heart Disease Facts. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

National Sleep Foundation. (2019). The Link Between a Lack of Sleep and Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/link-between-lack-sleep-and-type-2-diabetes

National Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). The Complex Relationship Between Sleep, Depression, & Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/excessive-sleepiness/health-impact/complex-relationship-between-sleep-depression-anxiety

National Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). The Complex Relationship Between Sleep, Depression, & Anxiety. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/excessive-sleepiness/health-impact/complex-relationship-between-sleep-depression-anxiety

World Health Day 2020: A Big Thank You to All of the Nurses and Midwives

This past Tuesday marked the 72nd anniversary of World Health Day, honoring the work of nurses and midwives.

In my career, I have seen nurses and midwives support, educate, and advocate for families. They are on the front lines, catering to the needs of others, managing crises, and finding solutions. Putting the needs of others before their own. Sometimes overlooked and undervalued, they remain the heartbeat of healthcare and play a vital role in global health.

Stacey, Mama Gonsalva & Me Christmas 2010
Mama Gonsalva was the incredible CHW I worked with during my time in Nakahuga.

Nurses and midwives stand in the gap. When I lived in the village of Nakahuga, there were hundreds of villagers, but only one doctor. There were times when the doctor would be ill and nurses, midwives, and community health workers stepped in to help. Yes, it was part of their job, but they always seemed to go above and beyond to serve any and everyone. They would even visit the homes of those who were unable to trek the long distance from their home to the clinic.

During a conference I attended a few years ago, I met several nurses from all over the world who were making a difference in their own country, or countries other than their homeland. They were giving their all no matter what obstacles they were faced with. Listening to their stories amazed me.

Nurses and midwives are combating maternal and infant mortality, caring for the sick, consoling those who have lost, and educating others on disease prevention and management. They do it all.

Make sure you thank a healthcare worker for their selflessness and dedication, especially for risking their life to help others during these perilous times.

The Link Between Health and Education


April 6 – 12 is National Public Health Week. Each day of NPHW is marked by a theme, from Mental Health to Economics. Today’s theme is one close to my heart…Education.

I have been given the privilege to work with children from all walks of life. I have worked as a Teacher Assistant in Ward 8 of Washington, D.C., and I have also worked as a Substitute Teacher throughout a few counties in Maryland.

My experiences in education have always made me wonder what the world would be like if every child was given the same opportunity. If there was a level playing field, if certain systems were not in place, and if equity existed in education.

The first time I had this thought, I was subbing at a private school outside of D.C. Seeing how the children were being taught, the resources available to them, even seeing what they were served for lunch, brought tears to my eyes. I truly wish that all children could receive more than what is given to them. What would the outcome of some of my girls from Ward 8 be if they were given the same opportunities and their teachers were given the same resources?

When we think about education and different outcomes, we must ensure that we think about the link between education and health.

Colorado Consumer Health Initiative

Studies have shown that individuals with less education are, “more likely to experience obesity, substance abuse, and intentional and unintentional injuries,” while those with higher levels of education live longer and are able to access and understand health information to make informed decisions.1 

The education that a person receives, or their level of education, may impact their health in the long run. The higher the level of education someone receives, the more likely they are to have a better job, and a better job may mean having access to better healthcare.2

There is another side to this story. Some children miss school and are chronically absent because of their health, unrecognized or untreated health conditions, and/or a lack of access to care, putting them at a disadvantage if they are unable to catch up.3,4

One of my students would be hospitalized for days at a time because of asthma flareups. Thankfully, her mother would come to the school to get her homework and asked questions about what was being taught.

In another situation, when I was a volunteer in Ghana, a student missed one week of school because of a large gash on her knee she received after falling. Afraid that the wound would become infected, the student’s mother made the decision to keep her daughter home from school. She was also able to keep up with her peers once she returned. However, not every student is able to bounce back after missing a few days of school.

Both education and health impact each other. This post focuses on health and education, but other factors such as environment and safety, social norms, economics, and language are a few social determinants that are equally important.

There is no cookie cutter solution to deal with the inequalities that many are faced with, regardless of age; impacting their access to adequate healthcare and health information, as well as access to an education system that is fair across the board. But, each of us can use our gifts, our talents, and our voices to help those in need and to advocate for justice for those who are underserved.


[1]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Health Disparities. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/index.htm

[2]. Baum, S., Ma, J., Payea, K. (2013). Education Pays 2013: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. College Board.

[3]. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2019). School Attendance, Truancy & Chronic Absenteeism: What Parents Need to Know.                                                                       https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/school/Pages/School-Attendance-Truancy-Chronic-Absenteeism.aspx

[4]. Allison, M., Attisha, E., & Council On School Health. (2019). The Link Between School Attendance and Good Health. Pediatrics, 143(2). https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/143/2/e20183648.full.pdf

Strengthening Your Immune System through Diet, Exercise, Sleep and Stress Management

Every day the body is exposed to invaders ready to wreak havoc on our health.  Taking preventative measures may help protect the immune system from being compromised; strengthening your internal defense system.


Your diet is one of the most important lines of defense.  Vitamins, minerals, and even protein play a vital role in protecting and strengthening your immune system.

Vitamins and Minerals

Although vitamins and minerals are micronutrients (see Nutrition: Getting Back to the Basics), they can aid the body in preventing disease and infection.

The Food and Drug Administration has a list of vitamins and minerals that includes food sources and the recommended Daily Value.


Protein helps the body to fight infections and repairs body tissue.


Image by Dorthy Castillo

Exercise defends the immune system by:

  • Improving immune system regulation
  • Improving defense activity
  • Acting as anti-inflammatory
  • Increasing blood flow and oxygen throughout the body

Try to do a combination of exercises (aerobics, strength training, stretching, and balancing) at least 30-minutes a day most days of the week.


During sleep stages 3 & 4, your body begins to heal and repair itself.  Your immune system may be weakened and compromised if you are not spending enough time in those two stages.  During sleep, cytokines (a type of protein) are released to protect the body from infection and inflammation.

Image by Andrea Piacquadio

Speak with your doctor if you are having trouble sleeping and learn about sleep hygiene.

Stress Management

What happens to some people when they are stressed? They may stress eat, avoid exercising, and have trouble sleeping.  Stress also releases hormones like cortisol and adrenaline that can harm your body if they are in your system for long periods of time due to chronic stress. Stress is inevitable, but it is possible to manage through practice.

Quick stress-relief tips:

  • Speak with a doctor, counselor, and/or someone you trust
  • Focus on those things you have control over
  • Know your stress triggers and ways to manage them
  • Seek resources for financial help
  • Use short-term distractions
  • Deal with the root issue
  • Exercise
  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Practice sleep hygiene
  • Set boundaries
  • Practice deep breathing exercises
  • Set aside at least 5 – 10 minutes for yourself

In addition to sleep, exercise, diet, and stress management, make sure you wash your hands and avoid touching your face as much as possible.


[1]. Klemm. S. (2020). Support Your Health With Nutrition. https://www.eatright.org/health/wellness/preventing-illness/support-your-health-with-nutrition

[2]. Myers, A. (2020). What You Need to Know About Vitamin D and Its Impact on Your Immune System. https://www.amymyersmd.com/2016/06/vitamin-d/

[3]. Food and Drug Administration. (2020). Vitamins and Minerals. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/InteractiveNutritionFactsLabel/assets/InteractiveNFL_Vitamins&MineralsChart_March2020.pdf

[4]. Ware, M. & Olsen, N. (2018). How can antioxidants benefit our health? https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/301506

[5]. Cleveland Clinic. (2020). 3 Vitamins That Are Best for Boosting Your Immunity. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/3-vitamins-best-boosting-immunity/

[6]. Hoffman, P. & Berry, M. (2008). The influence of selenium on immune responses. Mol Nutr Food Res. 52(11): 1273-1280. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3723386/

[7]. Nieman, D. & Wentz, L. (2019). The compelling link between physical activity and the body’s defense system. Journal of Sport and Health Science. Vol 8(3): 201-217. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095254618301005

[8]. Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). How Sleep Affects Your Immunity. https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-sleep-affects-your-immunity

[9]. American Psychological Association. (2006). Stress Weakens the Immune System. https://www.apa.org/research/action/immune

[10]. Morey, J., Boggero, I., Scott, B., & Segerstrom, C. (2016). Current Directions in Stress and Human Immune Function. Curr Opin Psychol. 5: 13-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465119/